Cable laying at the EMEC tidal test site (Image: Mike Brookes-Roper)

Industry reports

The following reports have been produced discussing the progress, potential and challenges being faced in the marine renewables industry:

Carbon Trust

Accelerating Marine Energy: The potential for cost reduction – insights from the Carbon Trust Marine Energy Accelerator | July 2011

The potential for wave and tidal stream to make a material contribution to the UK’s energy mix is well recognised, and is reflected in the level of UK activity. As the industry moves from full-scale prototype stage to first arrays, the key challenge facing the marine energy industry is lowering the cost of energy generation. The Marine Energy Accelerator (MEA) has supported technology innovation over the past four years, and has set out clear pathways for future cost of energy reduction: with sufficient focus on innovation we believe the costs of energy from marine generators can be competitive with other renewable technologies by the mid 2020s.

Crown Estate Scotland

For all publications from Crown Estate Scotland: Documents

European Commission

An EU Strategy to harness the potential of offshore renewable energy for a climate neutral future | Nov 2020

To help meet the EU’s goal of climate neutrality by 2050, the European Commission presents the EU Strategy on Offshore Renewable Energy. The Strategy proposes to increase Europe’s offshore wind capacity from its current level of 12 GW to at least 60 GW by 2030 and to 300 GW by 2050. The Commission aims to complement this with 40 GW of ocean energy and other emerging technologies such as floating wind and solar by 2050.

European Space Agency (ESA)

Space for Ocean Energy: Use cases and market opportunities | July 2023

This report highlights the key areas where space-based applications and technologies can play an important role to overcome challenges such as effective and efficient location scouting, bankability estimations, environmental policy decision making, monitoring and maintence and system planning and transmission activities.

Energy Technologies Institute (ETI)

Marine Energy Technology Roadmap | 2014

Technology roadmaps are tools that provide a framework for stimulating innovation in specific technology areas in order to achieve a long term vision, target or goal. The aim of this roadmap is to facilitate the establishment of a commercially viable marine energy sector in the UK, supported by an extensive supply chain, thereby building the skills and capacity necessary to enable the sector to make a material and cost-effective contribution to the delivery of the UK’s energy and climate change goals.

ETIP Ocean

A European Ocean Energy Industry – the €140bn Economic Opportunity | June 2022

ETIP Ocean undertook extensive economic modelling work to establish the economic and jobs impacts of ocean energy deployments under two contrasting scenarios: Europe leading the global market, or Europe following the global market. It reports that by taking the lead in the global ocean energy market, Europe will benefit from economic activity worth €140bn by 2050

Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda for Ocean Energy | May 2020

This Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) for ocean energy outlines the priority research, development and innovation challenges that must be focused upon in the years ahead. The SRIA gives guidance to all funders of innovation – industry, EU, national and regional – by presenting concrete research and innovation actions that will allow ocean energy to meet its SET Plan targets.

Powering Homes Today, Powering Nations Tomorrow | 2019

The report analyses the challenges faced by the sector on the route to industrial roll-out and proposes four actions to overcome them. Dedicated revenue support at national level is essential to attract investment for ocean energy farms. Alongside revenue support, a model for ‘blended’ public finance will allow the next round of ocean energy projects to reach financial close. The report highlights ocean energy’s recent successes, with record volumes of power being supplied to the grid by tidal stream technology, and several promising scale and full-sized wave devices going into the water. It reiterates ocean energy’s potential of providing 10% of Europe’s current electricity consumption by 2050.

IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency)

Innovation Outlook: Ocean Energy Technologies | Dec 2020

This outlook from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) examines the status and prospects of ocean energy technologies. It examines the operating principles, current installed capacity and projected project pipeline, along with markets and theoretical energy potential for each ocean energy type. The report also identifies challenges and offers recommendations to accelerate the deployment and commercialisation of each technology.

Marine Energy Wales

State of the sector: Economic benefits for Wales | 2023

Wales has experienced an unprecedented surge in spending and investment, with a staggering £103.4 million recorded. The primary catalysts for this are infrastructure expansions, which are paving the way for upcoming deployments.

National Hydropower Association (NHA)

Commercialization Strategy for Marine Energy | 2021

Report set industry deployment targets for ocean energy and calls on the U.S. Federal Government to accelerate commercialization of marine energy technologies (wave, tidal, ocean current, ocean thermal, and riverine) by increasing financial support for research and development, reducing market barriers and creating financial incentives for technology deployment.

Ocean Energy Europe

Scaling up investments in ocean energy technologies | March 2023

Public financing of ocean energy must be designed to create a ‘pull’ for private investment in a global market that could reach 350 Gigawatts by 2050, says a new report co-authored by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and Ocean Energy Europe (OEE). By making sure funding instruments are adapted to meet the sector’s needs, governments around the world can leverage private financing, speed up technological development and drive down costs.

Ocean energy: Key trends and statistics | 2022

The annual key trends and statistics publication from Ocean Energy Europe gathers data from the sector to present the latest state-of-play in Europe and worldwide.

Last Stop to 2025 – A 2022 Action Plan to deliver on the Offshore Strategy’s Ocean Energy Target | June 2022

The twin geopolitical and energy crises have thrown into sharp relief the high costs of Europe’s continued fossil gas dependency. Rising prices and supply threats clearly highlight the necessity to quickly decarbonise and diversify our energy mix. Ocean energy is now more relevant than ever.

Ocean energy and the environment: Research and strategic actions | Dec 2020

This report identifies the key environmental research needs and consenting challenges that require action at an EU and national level, to facilitate the roll out of ocean energy. It analyses the latest environmental research and the current EU and national level policies and regulations regarding ocean energy. It makes environmental research, policy and regulatory recommendations and proposes a concrete Strategic Action Plan.

2030 Ocean Energy Vision | Oct 2020

Ocean Energy Europe’s vision for 2030 sets out the sector’s plans for ambitious deployments, dramatic cost reductions and exciting industrial growth over the coming decade. The document outlines high and low growth scenarios, maps the extensive supply chain and make recommendations for policy actions.

For further reports published by the Ocean Energy Europe: OEE publication library

Ocean Energy Forum

Ocean Energy Strategic Roadmap: Building Ocean Energy for Europe | November 2016

This Strategic Roadmap was commissioned by the European Commission Directorate-General in collaboration with the Ocean Energy Forum. The Ocean Energy Forum has been set up to bring together stakeholders to develop a shared understanding of the problems faced by the Ocean Energy sector and to collectively devise workable solutions. The Forum is supported by a Secretariat whose main role is to help ensure the production and timely delivery of the Strategic Roadmap. The Secretariat previously publicised the Draft Ocean Energy Forum Strategic Roadmap dated 12 October 2015. The period October 2015 through to 2016 focused on the analysis of the Roadmap evidence-base and progress on implementation of the Roadmap Key Recommendations with the final update of the Roadmap published in November 2016.

Ocean Energy Systems (OES)

Annual Report 2022

This comprehensive report provides an overview of national policies, research, and technology demonstration on ocean energy in member countries across Australia, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Additionally, the report highlights the achievements and progress of IEA-OES collaborative projects. Ocean energy is poised to play a pivotal role in the global energy landscape. By 2050, the ocean energy sector forecasts a global total installed capacity of 300GW. This ambitious target is expected to generate 680,000 jobs, contribute $340 billion in gross value added (GVA), and prevent over 500 million tonnes of carbon emissions, underlining the sector’s potential to drive socio-economic growth and combat climate change.

Ocean Energy and Net Zero: An International Roadmap to Develop 300GW of Ocean Energy by 2050 | November 2023

This roadmap outlines a comprehensive strategy that will help to drive the global development of ocean energy.

OES-Environmental State of the Science Report: Environmental effects of marine renewable energy development around the world | October 2020

This report reflects the most current and pertinent published information about interactions of marine renewable energy devices and associated infrastructure with the animals and habitats that make up the marine environment. It has been developed and reviewed by over 60 international experts and scientists from around the world as part of an ongoing effort supported by the OES collaboration that operates within the International Technology Cooperation Framework of the International Energy Agency (IEA).

Past reports: Past OES Annual Reports

Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult

Cost Reduction Pathway of Tidal Stream Energy in the UK and France | October 2022

This report documents the global state of the tidal market and presents a cost reduction trajectory taking tidal stream energy from its current price of £260/MWh down to £78/MWh by 2035. The report the drivers needed for tidal stream energy cost reduction including scaling up the size and power of tidal devices, and development of larger TSE farms.

Tidal stream: Opportunities for collaborative action | Feb 2019

This report was prepared to frame how the UK tidal stream industry can work collaboratively in a way which adds valuable capacity to the UK energy mix at an affordable cost and create long term export opportunities for a UK supply chain.

Tidal Stream and Wave Energy: Cost Reduction and Industrial Benefit | April 2018

This report summarises how marine energy industries can meet the UK Government’s requirements for determining support for new technologies, namely carbon reduction, cost reduction and demonstrating that the UK can be a world-leader in a global market.

For further reports published by the Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult: ORE Catapult reports

Physics Powering the Green Economy

Physics Powering the Green Economy

This report sets out the central role that physics innovation and physicists have played in realising the green economy of today, and the equally key part they will need to play in scaling up a sustainable, internationally competitive green economy in the UK and Ireland for the future – in particular as a ‘systems challenge’ how the skills that physicists have, and their way of thinking, is important in solving such a problem.

Targeted support for physics R&D, and business innovation, as part of a long-term systems approach to leadership, coordination and delivery to unlock more of the contribution physics can make, is vital to realising a thriving green economy in the UK and Ireland.

The IOP and the physics community are a partner in this grand challenge. We stand ready to lend our knowledge and skills to drive change. Now is a moment for action.


Raising the bar: the world-leading energy commitments the UK should make ahead of COP26 | May 2021

This report outlines five targets and policies that RenewableUK recommend UK Government to adopt – both to advance our own decarbonisation and economic growth. These are: 1: 30GW onshore wind target by 2030, 2: 5GW minimum green hydrogen target by 2030, 3: 2GW floating wind target by 2030, 4: 1GW target for marine energy, 5: A ‘Just Transition Strategy’.

Export Nation: A Year in Wind, Wave and Tidal Exports | June 2018

RenewableUK’s Export Nation report looks into the number of countries to which UK-based firms are exporting goods and services in the wind, wave and tidal energy sectors. An indication of the range of the contracts being won around the world is included in this study.

Ocean Energy Race: The UK’s Inside Track | Feb 2017

The Ocean Energy Race report maps the new marine energy clusters which have sprung up around the country – in the South West of England, the Solent and the Isle of Wight, Wales and the Scottish Highlands and Islands. The sector is providing jobs and attracting millions of pounds in investment to some of the areas of the UK which need them most. Universities around the UK are playing a leading role in global research.

For further publications by Renewable UK on wave and tidal energy: Renewable UK Publications Search

Scottish Government

Draft Energy Strategy and Just Transition Plan | January 2023

To realise our climate change ambitions, we need to transform the way Scotland generates, transports and uses energy. This draft Energy Strategy and Just Transition Plan sets out the scale of that opportunity and provides clarity on how Scotland will prepare for a Just Energy Transition. Annex G covers the draft marine energy vision for Scotland.

Securing a green recovery on a path to net zero: climate change plan 2018–2032 | Dec 2020

This update to Scotland’s 2018-2032 Climate Change Plan sets out the Scottish Government’s pathway to our new and ambitious targets set by the Climate Change Act 2019. It is a key strategic document for green recovery from COVID-19.

Scottish Energy Strategy: The future of energy in Scotland | Dec 2017

This Strategy will guide the decisions that the Scottish Government, working with partner organisations, needs to make over the coming decades. Realising this Strategy’s vision will create opportunities for suppliers and consumers of energy. It will support work already planned or underway to achieve our long term climate change targets, and to address the impact of poor energy provision.

Scottish Renewables

The economic impact of Scotland’s renewable energy sector | June 2021

This report quantifies the contribution of renewable activities to employment, output, and gross value added in Scotland. This includes employment and activity in Scotland that are supported directly and through spill-over impacts by Scotland’s renewable energy sector.

Renewable energy’s rural impacts | July 2020

This report is an easily-accessible review of five economic studies carried out over the past three years. It shows the “remarkable an undeniable” positive effects of the sustainable development of wind, hydro power and marine energy deployment from Dumfries and Galloway in the south to Orkney in the north.

UK marine energy 2019: A new industry

This report sets out the role that the UK’s marine energy industry can play in our energy system and our economy, its unique attributes and the rationale for government to adopt a coordinated and strategic approach to support the sector’s development.

Industrial impact: The power of Scotland’s renewables sector | July 2018

This document takes a snapshot of the industrial impacts of Scotland’s new renewable energy economy, showcasing how the sector has built on Scotland’s existing strengths to deliver the industries of the future, raising and sharing prosperity among communities across the country. The document also features as an annex in Scottish Renewables’ response to the UK Government’s Industrial Strategy Green Paper.

Supergen & the Policy and Innovation Group at the University of Edinburgh

Research and Innovation for Wave and Tidal Stream in the UK and EU | 2023 Summary

The Supergen Offshore Renewable Energy (ORE) Hub and the Policy and Innovation Group of University of Edinburgh has jointly published four reports investigating the potential of ocean energy (focusing on wave and tidal stream) in UK. This report summarises the main findings from the four reports below (listed in recommended reading order):

  1. Delivering Net Zero: Forecasting Wave and Tidal Stream Deployment in UK Waters by 2050 | July 2023
  2. What is the value of innovative offshore renewable energy deployment to the UK economy? | Sept 2021
  3. What are the UK power system benefits from deployments of wave and tidal stream generation? | Jan 2023
  4. Ocean Energy and Net Zero: Policy Support for the Cost Effective Delivery of 12GW Wave and Tidal Stream by 2050 | July 2023

UK Ocean Energy Review | 2022

In collaboration with Wave Energy Scotland and Supergen ORE Hub, the University of Edinburgh’s Policy and Innovation Group has released their 2022 UK Ocean Energy Review. This report is an expansion of the UK chapter, submitted by the Policy and Innovation Group, to the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) initiative on Ocean Energy Systems (OES).

UK Government

Build back better: our plan for growth | March 2021

A publication setting out the government’s plans to support economic growth through significant investment in infrastructure, skills and innovation.

Powering our net zero future | Dec 2020

The UK Government’s Energy White Paper sets out what government will do over the next decade to cut carbon emissions and support new green jobs.

The ten point plan for a green industrial revolution | Nov 2020

The ten point plan sets out the approach government will take to build back better, support green jobs, and accelerate our path to net zero.

UK Research and Development Roadmap | July 2020

The government’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap sets out the UK’s vision and ambition for science, research and innovation.

UK Parliament POSTNOTE: Marine renewables | June 2020

A lack of revenue or subsidy support, as well as unique engineering challenges, have made the sector less competitive compared with other renewable technologies.

The future of marine renewables in the UK (House of Commons Energy and Climate Change Committee) | Feb 2012

The report examines the opportunities for the UK in developing wave and tidal energy and assesses the effectiveness of the Government’s broader policy measures in this area. The report identifies some of the potential benefits of wave and tidal energy and the main barriers to the development of the marine renewables sector, and look at the Government’s overarching strategy in developing the industry.

Wave Energy Scotland

Knowledge Library

Wave Energy Scotland is managing the most extensive technology programme of its kind in the wave energy sector. The Knowledge Library provides access to key information and documents generated through this world leading commercial and academic research & development.

Please contact us if you believe there are other documents that should be linked to on this page.







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Atlantis Resources Corporation



Naval Group

Naval Group


Open Hydro


Orbital Marine




ScottishPower Renewables



Sustainable Marine Energy

Sustainable Marine Energy


Voith Hydro


Wello Oy

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