Cable laying at the EMEC tidal test site (Image: Mike Brookes-Roper)

Industry reports

The following reports have been produced discussing the progress, potential and challenges being faced in the marine renewables industry:

Carbon Trust

Accelerating Marine Energy: The potential for cost reduction – insights from the Carbon Trust Marine Energy Accelerator | July 2011

The potential for wave and tidal stream to make a material contribution to the UK’s energy mix is well recognised, and is reflected in the level of UK activity. As the industry moves from full-scale prototype stage to first arrays, the key challenge facing the marine energy industry is lowering the cost of energy generation. The Marine Energy Accelerator (MEA) has supported technology innovation over the past four years, and has set out clear pathways for future cost of energy reduction: with sufficient focus on innovation we believe the costs of energy from marine generators can be competitive with other renewable technologies by the mid 2020s.

The Carbon Trust have commissioned a range of detailed reports on technology, cost and resource for wave and tidal flow energy devices: Marine energy reports

The Crown Estate

Energy and infrastructure outlook 2014-15: Wave and tidal | May 2014

Previous work on wave and tidal energy has mainly focused on researching generation technologies and developing conceptual project designs. Today, as the technologies continue to make material progress the first projects containing multiple devices are closer to being realised. The potential over the coming years is to construct increasingly large generation assets and grow an industry on the same scale as offshore wind. Taking a strategic view of this potential as manager of the UK seabed, The Crown Estate is focused on helping the emerging wave and tidal industry grow.

Wave and tidal energy in the Pentland Firth and Orkney waters: Delivering the first phases of projects | September 2013

This review has sought to clarify the factors which are currently impeding installation, and identify recommendations for industry and government to help resolve them. It has also evaluated the impact that the recommendations could have on timing of the first phases.

Wave and tidal energy in the Pentland Firth and Orkney waters: How the projects could be built | May 2011

During 2010, The Crown Estate announced that it had awarded development rights to a number of companies for eleven wave and dal stream energy projects in the Pentland Firth and Orkney waters, with a total potential capacity of 1,600 MW. Working with the developers, The Crown Estate has commissioned this report to provide information to stakeholders, in order to share understanding of how and when the projects are expected to be built.

For further publications by The Crown Estate on wave and tidal energy: Wave & tidal energy publications

European Commission

An EU Strategy to harness the potential of offshore renewable energy for a climate neutral future | Nov 2020

To help meet the EU’s goal of climate neutrality by 2050, the European Commission presents the EU Strategy on Offshore Renewable Energy. The Strategy proposes to increase Europe’s offshore wind capacity from its current level of 12 GW to at least 60 GW by 2030 and to 300 GW by 2050. The Commission aims to complement this with 40 GW of ocean energy and other emerging technologies such as floating wind and solar by 2050.

Energy Technologies Institute (ETI) & UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC)

Marine Energy Technology Roadmap | 2014

Technology roadmaps are tools that provide a framework for stimulating innovation in specific technology areas in order to achieve a long term vision, target or goal. The aim of this roadmap is to facilitate the establishment of a commercially viable marine energy sector in the UK, supported by an extensive supply chain, thereby building the skills and capacity necessary to enable the sector to make a material and cost-effective contribution to the delivery of the UK’s energy and climate change goals.

European Technology and Innovation Platform for Ocean Energy (ETIP Ocean)

A European Ocean Energy Industry – the €140bn Economic Opportunity | Dec 2021

ETIP Ocean undertook extensive economic modelling work to establish the economic and jobs impacts of ocean energy deployments under two contrasting scenarios: Europe leading the global market, or Europe following the global market. It reports that by taking the lead in the global ocean energy market, Europe will benefit from economic activity worth €140bn by 2050

Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda for Ocean Energy | May 2020

This Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) for ocean energy outlines the priority research, development and innovation challenges that must be focused upon in the years ahead. The SRIA gives guidance to all funders of innovation – industry, EU, national and regional – by presenting concrete research and innovation actions that will allow ocean energy to meet its SET Plan targets.

Powering Homes Today, Powering Nations Tomorrow | 2019

The report analyses the challenges faced by the sector on the route to industrial roll-out and proposes four actions to overcome them. Dedicated revenue support at national level is essential to attract investment for ocean energy farms. Alongside revenue support, a model for ‘blended’ public finance will allow the next round of ocean energy projects to reach financial close.

The report highlights ocean energy’s recent successes, with record volumes of power being supplied to the grid by tidal stream technology, and several promising scale and full-sized wave devices going into the water. It reiterates ocean energy’s potential of providing 10% of Europe’s current electricity consumption by 2050.

IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency)

Innovation Outlook: Ocean Energy Technologies | Dec 2020

This outlook from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) examines the status and prospects of ocean energy technologies. It examines the operating principles, current installed capacity and projected project pipeline, along with markets and theoretical energy potential for each ocean energy type. The report also identifies challenges and offers recommendations to accelerate the deployment and commercialisation of each technology.

Joint Research Centre (JRC)

Workshop on identification of future emerging technologies in the ocean energy sector | March 2018

This publication is a Conference and Workshop report by the Joint Research Centre (JRC), the European Commission’s science and knowledge service. As part of the European Commission’s internal Low Carbon Energy Observatory (LCEO) project, the JRC is developing an inventory of Future Emerging Technologies (FET) relevant to energy supply.

Low Carbon Innovation Coordination Group

Technology Innovation Needs Assessment (TINA): Marine Energy Summary Report | August 2012

The TINAs aim to identify and value the key innovation needs of specific low carbon technology families to inform the prioritisation of public sector investment in low carbon innovation. This document summarises the Marine Energy TINA analysis and draws on a much more detailed TINA analysis pack which will be published separately.

Marine Energy Wales

State of the sector: Economic benefits for Wales | 2020

Developing marine renewable energy offers Wales a realistic opportunity to deliver a low carbon economy and reduce carbon emissions in response to the climate emergency declaration by Welsh Government in 2019.

National Hydropower Association (NHA)

Commercialization Strategy for Marine Energy | 2021

Report set industry deployment targets for ocean energy and calls on the U.S. Federal Government to accelerate commercialization of marine energy technologies (wave, tidal, ocean current, ocean thermal, and riverine) by increasing financial support for research and development, reducing market barriers and creating financial incentives for technology deployment.

Ocean Energy Europe

Ocean energy: Key trends and statistics 2021

The annual key trends and statistics publication from Ocean Energy Europe gathers data from the sector to present the latest state-of-play in Europe and worldwide.

Ocean energy and the environment: Research and strategic actions | Dec 2020

This report identifies the key environmental research needs and consenting challenges that require action at an EU and national level, to facilitate the roll out of ocean energy. It analyses the latest environmental research and the current EU and national level policies and regulations regarding ocean energy. It makes environmental research, policy and regulatory recommendations and proposes a concrete Strategic Action Plan.

2030 Ocean Energy Vision | Oct 2020

Ocean Energy Europe’s vision for 2030 sets out the sector’s plans for ambitious deployments, dramatic cost reductions and exciting industrial growth over the coming decade. The document outlines high and low growth scenarios, maps the extensive supply chain and make recommendations for policy actions.

Position Paper: 100,000 homes powered by ocean energy and global leadership by 2025 | Aug 2020

The new EU Strategy on Offshore Renewable Energy must include a target of 100MW of ocean energy installed in Europe by 2025. This would be enough to power 100,000 European homes a year, and would pave the way for installing 3GW by 2030 and 100GW by 2050. This target would provide the political impetus and incentives needed to maintain Europe’s position as the global leader in ocean energy and create a new industry for Europe.

Position Paper: Offshore Renewables Strategy: Ocean energy – the next European Industry | May 2020

Ocean energy also provides a long-term growth perspective to maritime and peripheral regions that were often hardest hit by the economic crisis. Through new offshore projects requiring skilled jobs, it revitalizes ports and coastal regions. Those are just a few of the reasons why ocean energy is the EU’s next industrial success story.

Position Paper: Towards European industrial leadership in Ocean Energy in 2020

This Paper sets out the steps that countries, planning to deploy ocean energy technologies on a significant scale, are taking to move the sector towards commercial readiness. A key aim of the paper is to secure EU-level support for this activity and recognition of the ocean energy sector as a European strategic technology under the Strategic Energy Technology Plan.

For further reports published by the Ocean Energy Europe: OEE publication library

Ocean Energy Forum

Ocean Energy Strategic Roadmap: Building Ocean Energy for Europe | November 2016

This Strategic Roadmap was commissioned by the European Commission Directorate-General in collaboration with the Ocean Energy Forum. The Ocean Energy Forum has been set up to bring together stakeholders to develop a shared understanding of the problems faced by the Ocean Energy sector and to collectively devise workable solutions. The Forum is supported by a Secretariat whose main role is to help ensure the production and timely delivery of the Strategic Roadmap. The Secretariat previously publicised the Draft Ocean Energy Forum Strategic Roadmap dated 12 October 2015. The period October 2015 through to 2016 focused on the analysis of the Roadmap evidence-base and progress on implementation of the Roadmap Key Recommendations with the final update of the Roadmap published in November 2016.

Ocean Energy Systems (OES)

Annual Report 2021

Ocean Energy Systems (OES) is an international technology initiative on ocean energy under the IEA. This Annual Report presents an overview of the progress made in the ocean energy sector within OES member countires in 2021.

OES-Environmental State of the Science Report: Environmental effects of marine renewable energy development around the world | October 2020

This report reflects the most current and pertinent published information about interactions of marine renewable energy devices and associated infrastructure with the animals and habitats that make up the marine environment. It has been developed and reviewed by over 60 international experts and scientists from around the world as part of an ongoing effort supported by the OES collaboration that operates within the International Technology Cooperation Framework of the International Energy Agency (IEA).

Blue Economy and its Promising Markets for Ocean Energy | Sept 2020

Many ocean-based applications and markets are located far from the coast, facing important offshore challenges, such the need for clean power. From the experts interviewed by OES there is a consensus that ocean energy can meet these anticipated needs and unlock the growth potential of the blue economy.

Ocean Energy in Islands and Remote Coastal Areas | July 2020

OES report shows that islands and other off-grid markets may present opportunities for ocean energy developers to deploy their technologies while providing sustainable energy to local communities

Past reports: Past OES Annual Reports

Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult

Tidal stream: Opportunities for collaborative action | Feb 2019

This report was prepared to frame how the UK tidal stream industry can work collaboratively in a way which adds valuable capacity to the UK energy mix at an affordable cost and create long term export opportunities for a UK supply chain.

Tidal Stream and Wave Energy: Cost Reduction and Industrial Benefit | April 2018

This report summarises how marine energy industries can meet the UK Government’s requirements for determining support for new technologies, namely carbon reduction, cost reduction and demonstrating that the UK can be a world-leader in a global market.

Financing solutions for wave and tidal energy | November 2014

This report is an analysis of the funding requirements and investment situation for the wave and tidal energy sector in the UK and suggests solutions that could facilitate the required investment to materially progress the sector.

Economic Impact Study of the offshore renewables energy industry in the UK | March 2014

Working with the Fraser of Allander Institute (FAI) at Strathclyde University and BVG Associates, the ORE Catapult has quantified the economic opportunity that offshore renewables can deliver out to 2020, identified the biggest opportunity areas and has sought to understand how the UK’s offshore potential can be made a reality.

For further reports published by the Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult: ORE Catapult reports


Raising the bar: the world-leading energy commitments the UK should make ahead of COP26 | May 2021

This report outlines five targets and policies that RenewableUK recommend UK Government to adopt – both to advance our own decarbonisation and economic growth. These are: 1: 30GW onshore wind target by 2030, 2: 5GW minimum green hydrogen target by 2030, 3: 2GW floating wind target by 2030, 4: 1GW target for marine energy, 5: A ‘Just Transition Strategy’.

Export Nation: A Year in Wind, Wave and Tidal Exports | June 2018

RenewableUK’s Export Nation report looks into the number of countries to which UK-based firms are exporting goods and services in the wind, wave and tidal energy sectors. An indication of the range of the contracts being won around the world is included in this study.

Ocean Energy Race: The UK’s Inside Track | Feb 2017

The Ocean Energy Race report maps the new marine energy clusters which have sprung up around the country – in the South West of England, the Solent and the Isle of Wight, Wales and the Scottish Highlands and Islands. The sector is providing jobs and attracting millions of pounds in investment to some of the areas of the UK which need them most. Universities around the UK are playing a leading role in global research.

For further publications by Renewable UK on wave and tidal energy: Renewable UK Publications Search

Scottish Enterprise

Marine energy: Seizing the supply chain opportunity | March 2015

A report on the opportunities in the marine energy supply chain.

Scottish Government

Securing a green recovery on a path to net zero: climate change plan 2018–2032 | Dec 2020

This update to Scotland’s 2018-2032 Climate Change Plan sets out the Scottish Government’s pathway to our new and ambitious targets set by the Climate Change Act 2019. It is a key strategic document for green recovery from COVID-19.

Scottish Energy Strategy: The future of energy in Scotland | Dec 2017

This Strategy will guide the decisions that the Scottish Government, working with partner organisations, needs to make over the coming decades. Realising this Strategy’s vision will create opportunities for suppliers and consumers of energy. It will support work already planned or underway to achieve our long term climate change targets, and to address the impact of poor energy provision.

Marine Energy Group: Marine energy action plan | June 2012

The Marine Energy Group (MEG) published the Marine Energy Road Map in August 2009. The Road Map presented an up-to- date assessment of the status and potential of the marine energy industry in Scotland and outlined key recommendations for the future development and acceleration of the sector. Given the impact of the Road Map and the progress that has been made across the sector on the back of its publication, it was felt a review was needed, having been published almost 3 years ago. This Action Plan provides a review of the Road Map and outlines the areas of progress and where further work is needed over the coming years.

Scottish Renewables

The economic impact of Scotland’s renewable energy sector | June 2021

This report quantifies the contribution of renewable activities to employment, output, and gross value added in Scotland. This includes employment and activity in Scotland that are supported directly and through spill-over impacts by Scotland’s renewable energy sector.

Renewable energy’s rural impacts | July 2020

This report is an easily-accessible review of five economic studies carried out over the past three years. It shows the “remarkable an undeniable” positive effects of the sustainable development of wind, hydro power and marine energy deployment from Dumfries and Galloway in the south to Orkney in the north.

UK marine energy 2019: A new industry

This report sets out the role that the UK’s marine energy industry can play in our energy system and our economy, its unique attributes and the rationale for government to adopt a coordinated and strategic approach to support the sector’s development.

Industrial impact: The power of Scotland’s renewables sector | July 2018

This document takes a snapshot of the industrial impacts of Scotland’s new renewable energy economy, showcasing how the sector has built on Scotland’s existing strengths to deliver the industries of the future, raising and sharing prosperity among communities across the country. The document also features as an annex in Scottish Renewables’ response to the UK Government’s Industrial Strategy Green Paper.

UK Government

Build back better: out plan for growth | March 2021

A publication setting out the government’s plans to support economic growth through significant investment in infrastructure, skills and innovation.

Powering our net zero future | Dec 2020

The UK Government’s Energy White Paper sets out what government will do over the next decade to cut carbon emissions and support new green jobs.

The ten point plan for a green industrial revolution | Nov 2020

The ten point plan sets out the approach government will take to build back better, support green jobs, and accelerate our path to net zero.

UK Research and Development Roadmap | July 2020

The government’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap sets out the UK’s vision and ambition for science, research and innovation.

UK Parliament POSTNOTE: Marine renewables | June 2020

A lack of revenue or subsidy support, as well as unique engineering challenges, have made the sector less competitive compared with other renewable technologies.

Industrial Strategy: building a Britain fit for the future | Nov 2017

This white paper sets out a long-term plan to boost the productivity and earning power of people throughout the UK.

The future of marine renewables in the UK (House of Commons Energy and Climate Change Committee) | Feb 2012

The report examines the opportunities for the UK in developing wave and tidal energy and assesses the effectiveness of the Government’s broader policy measures in this area. The report identifies some of the potential benefits of wave and tidal energy and the main barriers to the development of the marine renewables sector, and look at the Government’s overarching strategy in developing the industry.

Wave Energy Scotland

Knowledge Library

Wave Energy Scotland is managing the most extensive technology programme of its kind in the wave energy sector. The Knowledge Library provides access to key information and documents generated through this world leading commercial and academic research & development.

Please contact us if you believe there are other documents that should be linked to on this page.







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